How do you rule out hepatocellular carcinoma?

How do you test for HCC?

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC or liver cancer) cannot be diagnosed by routine blood tests. There is only one specific blood test which can be used towards a diagnosis of HCC. This test specifically measures for the levels of the protein alfa-fetoprotein in serum (AFP).

What imaging tests are used to diagnose HCC?

Dynamic and multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the standard diagnostic tests for HCC.

What tumor markers should be used to detect hepatocellular carcinoma?

Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker in detecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and has been proven to have capability of prefiguring the prognosis.

When should you suspect HCC?

Suspicion for HCC is raised when any lesion is recognized in US, particularly if it is more than 1 cm in size in the background of liver cirrhosis[47] (Figure ​ 1). Several studies assessed the diagnostic accuracy of US as a screening tool for early detection of HCC[48-51].

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How do you rule out hepatocellular disease?

Tests and procedures used to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma include:

  1. Blood tests to measure liver function.
  2. Imaging tests, such as CT and MRI.
  3. Liver biopsy, in some cases, to remove a sample of liver tissue for laboratory testing.

Which lab is most diagnostic of hepatocellular carcinoma?

Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis.

What does HCC look like on ultrasound?

Different features of HCC in ultrasound examination. Small, typically hypoechoic lesion (a), larger lesions with mixed echogenicity (b and c). Fibrolamellar carcinoma is usually a large, solitary focus within unchanged liver parenchyma, often showing central fibrous scar and calcifications.

What does a liver biopsy tell you?

A liver biopsy is a test used to diagnose liver conditions. Tissue samples are removed from your liver and checked under a microscope for signs of damage or disease. A liver biopsy can tell if there are cancer cells or other abnormal cells in your liver. It can also tell how well your liver is working.

What is HCC diagnosis?

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary tumor of the liver that usually develops in the setting of chronic liver disease, particularly in patients with cirrhosis due to alcohol use, chronic hepatitis B or C virus infections, or nonalcohol-associated steatohepatitis (NASH) [1,2].

What is the modality of choice to image hepatocellular carcinoma?

We scan patients with cirrhosis from any etiology every 6 months with ultrasound [5, 6]. Ultrasonography remains the primary imaging modality of choice for HCC surveillance. It is more cost-effective than CT and MRI, and more widely available.

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What is elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma?

Alpha fetoprotein

When elevated, the AFP is 75-91% specific, and values greater than 400 ng/mL are generally considered diagnostic of HCC in the proper clinical context, including appropriate radiologic findings.

What is a beta hCG tumor marker test for?

Quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) testing, often called beta hCG (βhCG), measures the amount of hCG present in the blood. It may be used to help diagnose gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) or, with other tests such as AFP and lactate dehydrogenase, to help diagnose germ cell tumors.