Is platinum good for cancer?
Platinum compounds have shown remarkable anticancer activity, which is why they are used in several types of solid tumors including, but not limited to, testicular, colorectal, gastric, head and neck, lung, bladder, ovary, and endometrium (Perry, 2012).
What is platinum in cancer treatment?
Platinum-based agents are important drugs or drug candidates for cancer chemotherapy. Traditional platinum drugs including the globally approved cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are neutral platinum (II) complexes with two amine ligands and two additional ligands that can be aquated for further binding with DNA.
How do platinum anticancer drugs bind to DNA?
Platinum-containing molecules are widely used as anticancer drugs. These molecules exert cytotoxic effects by binding to DNA through various mechanisms. The binding between DNA and platinum-based drugs hinders the opening of DNA, and therefore, DNA duplication and transcription are severely hampered.
How do platinum-based chemotherapies work?
Platinum-Based Drugs (Cisplatin, Carboplatin)
These drugs form highly reactive platinum complexes that bind and crosslink DNA, a double-stranded molecule inside the nucleus of the cell that controls cellular activity. The chemical crosslinking within the DNA prevents cancer cells from growing and causes them to die.
What does platinum do to the body?
Platinum metal is biologically inert, whereas soluble platinum compounds (e.g., halogenated salts) encountered in occupational settings can cause platinum salt hypersensitivity with symptoms that include bronchitis and asthma after inhalational exposure and contact dermatitis after skin exposure.
What are the harmful effects of platinum?
Other Long-Term Effects
* Platinum may cause a skin allergy. If allergy develops, very low future exposure can cause itching and a skin rash. * Platinum may cause an asthma-like allergy. Future exposure can cause asthma attacks with shortness of breath, wheezing, cough, and/or chest tightness.
How effective is platinum chemotherapy?
When the disease is at an advanced stage, 80-90% of women with ovarian cancer will develop platinum resistance, which means platinum-based chemotherapy becomes ineffective, even if the patient showed promising results during initial treatment. For these patients, there is very little hope for survival.
Which chemo drugs contain platinum?
Platinum-based anticancer drugs, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, nedaplatin, and lobaplatin, are heavily applied in chemotherapy regimens. However, the intrinsic or acquired resistance severely limit the clinical application of platinum-based treatment.
Why is platinum effective?
Platinum-based drugs are effective against cancer because at their centre is a platinum atom joined to two ammonion molecules and two chloride ions. The compound is negatively charged, but when it enters the cancer cell it becomes positively charged because the chloride ions are replaced by water molecules.
What causes platinum resistance?
Several mechanisms contribute to the development of drug resistance, including tumor heterogeneity, reduced drug concentration to the target, alteration in drug target structure, increased repair of the lesions induced. Depending on the drug and tumor under investigation, one or more mechanisms can take place.