Question: Why do cancers cause hypercalcemia?

Why does hypercalcemia occur in cancer?

Hypercalcemia of malignancy is most commonly mediated by tumoral production of parathyroid hormone–related protein or by cytokines activating osteoclast degradation of bone.

How is hypercalcemia related to cancer?

Hypercalcemia can occur in up to 30% of persons with a malignancy. In severe cases, hypercalcemia can be associated with neurocognitive dysfunction as well as volume depletion and renal insufficiency or failure. Individual risk of hypercalcemia depends on the underlying type and stage of malignancy.

How do tumors cause hypercalcemia?

Hypercalcemia in HHM occurs due to systemic secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) by a malignant tumor. PTHrP increases bone resorption and limits renal clearance of calcium, resulting in hypercalcemia.

Does lymphoma cause hypercalcemia?

Hypercalcemia is uncommonly associated with lymphoma but may be seen particularly in centres where many patients with this disease are treated. Hypercalcemia readily responds to therapy and is a reversible cause of morbidity, but when associated with lymphoma it usually indicates widespread disease.

What type of cancer causes high calcium?

Types of cancer that cause hypercalcemia of malignancy include cancers of the lung, breast, esophagus, mouth, tongue, lip, kidney, ovary, uterus, and cervix. Blood-borne cancers such as lymphoma and multiple myeloma can also cause high calcium levels.

THIS IS INTERESTING:  Question: How often does GERD turn into cancer?

What is the most common cause of hypercalcemia?

Hypercalcemia is caused by: Overactive parathyroid glands (hyperparathyroidism). This most common cause of hypercalcemia can stem from a small, noncancerous (benign) tumor or enlargement of one or more of the four parathyroid glands.

How is hypercalcemia of malignancy diagnosed?

Diagnosis should include the history and physical examination as well as measurement of the above mediators of hypercalcemia. Management includes hydration, calcitonin, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and in certain patients, prednisone and cinacalcet.

What causes elevated PTHrP?

Nonmalignant conditions that have been described in association with elevated plasma PTHrP levels include systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV-associated lymphadenopathy, lymphedema of chest or pleural cavities, and with benign tumors of the ovary, kidney and the neuroendocrine system.

Which malignancy is most commonly associated with hypercalcemia?

The most common cancers associated with hypercalcemia in the United States are breast, renal, and lung cancer and multiple myeloma [2]. Malignancy is usually evident clinically by the time it causes hypercalcemia, and patients with hypercalcemia of malignancy often have a poor prognosis.