Which chemo drugs cause hemorrhagic cystitis?
The most common pharmacologic causes of hemorrhagic cystitis are the oxazaphosphorine-alkylating agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Unfortunately, the toxicity of these drugs is not insignificant, and many of the adverse effects are urologic.
Can chemotherapy cause cystitis?
Specifically, some chemotherapy drugs, treatments delivered into your bladder and/or radiation to the pelvis can cause an irritation to the lining of your bladder, called cystitis. Cystitis can be severe, causing your bladder to bleed and increasing your risk of infection.
Can carboplatin cause hemorrhagic cystitis?
A review of the literature shows a previous case in which high doses of carboplatin were implicated as the cause of hemorrhagic cystitis, presumably by toxicity to transitional epithelium of the bladder.
Can cisplatin cause hemorrhagic cystitis?
We present a paediatric case of a 15-year-old boy with medulloblastoma who developed haemorrhagic cystitis following cisplatin chemotherapy. All other causes were ruled out and it is therefore likely that the agent in this case was cisplatin, which has never had haemorrhagic cystitis reported as a side effect.
How does Mesna prevent hemorrhagic cystitis?
Administration of Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate sodium) before initiation of cyclophosphamide can prevent hemorrhagic cystitis by binding to and neutralizing acrolein.
What drug is administered with cyclophosphamide to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis?
Mesna is an FDA-approved drug used as a prophylactic medication in reducing the incidence of ifosfamide and cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.
What causes hemorrhagic cystitis?
Hemorrhagic cystitis results from damage to the bladder’s transitional epithelium and blood vessels by toxins, viruses, radiation, drugs (in particular, chemotherapeutic drugs), bacterial infections, or other disease processes.
Is blood in urine cystitis?
Cystitis means inflammation of your bladder. If you have hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), you have signs and symptoms of bladder inflammation along with blood in your urine.
Are UTIs common during chemo?
However, if you are undergoing chemotherapy, or are elderly, you may be more susceptible to the urinary tract infection spreading throughout the urinary tract to the kidneys (pyelonephritis) or into the bloodstream (urosepsis).
How can cyclophosphamide hemorrhagic cystitis be prevented?
The best treatment for cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis is prevention. Mesna, which conjugates acrolein in urine, is an effective prophylaxis against cyclophosphamide cystitis. Once hemorrhagic cystitis develops, adequate hydration is usually sufficient to prevent cystitis.
Which chemo drugs are nephrotoxic?
The most nephrotoxic chemotherapeutic drug is cisplatin, which is often associated with acute kidney injury. Many other drugs such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, vascular endothelial growth factor pathway inhibitors and epidermal growth factor receptor pathway inhibitors may have toxic effects on the kidneys.
Can chemotherapy cause urinary problems?
Chemotherapy. Some chemotherapy drugs break down into substances that irritate the lining of the bladder when they are passed in the urine. The irritation can cause inflammation and bleeding. In rare cases, it can become severe and lead to permanent damage.